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UN resolutions on occupied East Jerusalem

The UN and its bodies have – to no avail – frequently denounced Israel’s occupation of East Jerusalem and its actions.

The UN has for 50 years condemned Israel's occupation of East Jerusalem [Lucas Jackson/Reuters]
The UN has for 50 years condemned Israel’s occupation of

US President Donald Trump recognised Jerusalem as Israel’s capital on Wednesday, overturning decades of international consensus on the highly contested city, half of which was occupied and annexed by Israel following the 1967 War.

In 1980, Israel passed a law that declared Jerusalem the “complete and united” capital of Israel, in violation of international law.

The Palestinians, however, see East Jerusalem as the capital of their future state.

Al Jazeera highlights the numerous resolutions made by the United Nations and its bodies regarding the city since the 1967 conflict.

UN Security Council

Resolution 242: November 22, 1967, the unanimously adopted resolution called on Israel to withdraw its armed forces from territories occupied in the 1967 conflict.

Resolution 250: April 27, 1968, asked Israel not to hold a military parade in Jerusalem.

Resolution 251: May 2, 1968, condemned Israel holding the military parade in Jerusalem.

Resolution 252: May 21, 1968, asked Israel to cancel all activities in Jerusalem, and condemned the occupation of any land through armed aggression. It also demanded Israel “desist from taking any further action which tends to change the status” of the city.

Resolution 267: July 3, 1969, confirmed resolution 252, reaffirming that “acquisition of territory by military conquest is inadmissible”.

Resolution 271: September 15, 1969, condemned the extensive damage caused by arson to the Holy Al Aqsa Mosque, a building under the military occupation of Israel. It called on Israel to observe the provisions of the Geneva Conventions and “refrain from causing any hindrance to the discharge of the established functions of the Supreme Muslim Council of Jerusalem”, including “its plans for the maintenance and repair of the Islamic Holy Places” within the city.

Resolution 298: September 25, 1971, confirmed in “the clearest possible terms” that all actions taken by Israel to change the status of Jerusalem, such as land confiscation, were illegal.

Resolution 465: March 1, 1980, demanded Israel to stop the planning and construction of settlements in territories occupied since 1967, including Jerusalem. It also called on Israel to “dismantle the existing settlements”.

Resolution 476: June 30, 1980, reaffirmed the “overriding necessity for ending the prolonged occupation of Arab territories occupied by Israel since 1967” and reiterated that all measures which had altered the status of Jerusalem were “null and void” and had to be rescinded.

Resolution 478: August 20, 1980, condemned in “the strongest terms” the enactment of Israeli law proclaiming a change in status of Jerusalem. The resolution called on all states “that have established diplomatic missions” in Jerusalem to withdraw them from the city.

Resolution 672: October 12, 1990, expressed alarm at the violence which claimed more than twenty Palestinian lives at the al-Aqsa Mosque on October 8, 1990. The resolution condemned the acts of violence committed by Israeli security forces and referred to Israel as an “occupying power”.

Resolution 1073: September 28, 1996, expressed concern about developments in Jerusalem relating to Israel’s opening of an entrance to a tunnel near the al-Aqsa Mosque, which resulted in a number of civilian deaths, and called for “the safety and protection of Palestinian civilians to be ensured”.

Resolution 1322: October 7, 2000, denounced the visit made by Israeli opposition leader, Ariel Sharon, to the al-Aqsa Mosque and the “subsequent violence there and at other holy places” which resulted in more than 80 Palestinian deaths.

Resolution 1397: March 12, 2002, called on Palestinian and Israeli leaders to resume the peace process through negotiations regarding a political settlement.

Resolution 2334: December 23, 2016, condemned Israel’s construction of settlements in all territory occupied since 1967, including East Jerusalem. The UNSC emphasised it would not recognise any changes to the pre-1967 conflict lines, and stressed that the “cessation of all Israeli settlement activities is essential for salvaging the two-State solution”.

UN General Assembly

Resolution 2253: July 4, 1967, expressed concern at Israel’s attempts to change the status of Jerusalem and called for “all measures already taken” to be rescinded and no further such action.

Resolution 36/15: October 28, 1981, determined that Israel’s transformation of Jerusalem, including historical, cultural and religious sites, constituted a “flagrant violation of the principles of international law”. Such acts, the resolution stated, “constitute a serious obstruction to achieving a comprehensive and just peace in the Middle East”.

Resolution 55/130: February 28, 2001, demanded that Israel cooperate with a special committee set up to “investigate Israeli practices affecting the human rights of Palestinian people and other Arabs” in the occupied territories. The resolution expressed “grave concern” about the situation in Jerusalem “as a result of Israeli practices and measures … [especially] the excessive use of force … which has resulted in more than 160 Palestinian deaths”.

Resolution 10/14: December 12, 2003, requested the International Court of Justice to provide an advisory opinion on the legal consequences of Israel’s construction of a wall in the “Occupied Palestinian Territory, including in and around East Jerusalem”.

Resolution 60/104: January 18, 2006, requested the Special Committee, “pending complete termination of the Israeli occupation”, continue to investigate Israeli actions in “the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, and other Arab territories” since 1967.

Resolution 70/89: December 15, 2015, condemned the continuation of Israeli occupation of the Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, as a violation of international law. The resolution also denounced Israel’s “unlawful construction” of a wall inside occupied territories, including “in and around East Jerusalem”.

Resolution 71/96: December 23, 2016, reaffirmed that the Geneva Convention, relative to the protection of civilians during conflict, was applicable to the “Occupied Palestinian Territory, including East Jerusalem, and other Arab territories occupied by Israel since 1967”.

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO)

150: November 27, 1996, stated the “Old City of Jerusalem” was inscribed on the endangered world heritage list, and labelled Israel’s opening of an entrance to a tunnel near the al-Aqsa Mosque “an act which has offended religious sensibilities in the world”.

159: June 15, 2000, expressed concern at “the measures which continue to impede the free access of Palestinians to Jerusalem”.

184: April 2, 2010, expressed “deep concern” regarding Israeli archeological works, including excavations, at the al-Aqsa Mosque compound in Jerusalem. The resolution stated the works “contradict UNESCO decisions and conventions”.

192: January 13, 2014, criticised Israel’s “continuous, [and] intrusive” archeological demolitions, excavations and works in East Jerusalem.

196: May 22, 2015, stated “deep regret” at Israel’s “refusal to implement previous UNESCO decisions concerning Jerusalem” and called for the deployment of a permanent expert to East Jerusalem “to report on a regular basis about all the aspects covering all UNESCO fields of competence in East Jerusalem”.

202: November 18, 2017, expressed regret at Israel’s refusal to “implement the UNESCO request … to appoint a permanent representative to be stationed in East Jerusalem”, and stressed the “urgent need to implement the UNESCO reactive monitoring mission to the Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls”.

SOURCE: Al Jazeera News

‘Beaten’ Palestinian boy in viral photo charged by Farah Najjar
A 16-year-old Palestinian boy, shown in a photo that has been roundly condemned as symbolising the Israeli army’s use of excessive force, has been charged with throwing stones at a group of armed Israeli soldiers.
An image of Fawzi al-Junaidi, blindfolded and surrounded by more than 20 Israeli occupation forces, was widely denounced as it was shared on social media earlier this week.
The scene pictures al-Junaidi looking disoriented, wearing a grey shirt and ripped jeans as dozens of soldiers crowd around him carrying guns and wearing protective gear, including helmets and knee pads.
The teenager, who denies throwing stones, was arrested on Thursday amid ongoing protests across the West Bank, East Jerusalem and the Gaza Strip over a US decision on December 6 to recognise Jerusalem as the capital of Israel.
In the six day after the US announcement, at least 16 other Palestinians were arrested for protesting. At least four have been killed in the violence since the US declaration, and more than 700 injured.
‘He was beaten with a rifle’
Al-Junaidi also denies accusations of “participating in protests”.
Witnesses have claimed they saw al-Junaidi throwing stones.
“He said he was fearful and was running away when tear gas canisters were being thrown,” his lawyer, Farah Bayadsi, told Al Jazeera. “Fawzi said he was beaten with a rifle and he showed up with bruises all over his neck, chest and back.”
The child faced an Israeli military court on Wednesday, following an initial hearing on Monday. He was charged with throwing stones, but the decision on his sentencing or release was adjourned until December 18.
“The police had called for an extension on Fawzi’s arrest during the initial hearing,” said Bayadsi, who works under the Defence for Children International – Palestine (DCIP).
“The prosecutor demanded a seven-day extension to the arrest so that they can prepare a list of indictments, but we refused,” she said.
According to Bayadsi, the judge was stunned at the excessive force that al-Junaidi was subjected to – most apparent in the manner in which he was transferred to prison.
WATCH: ‘Dangerous and unacceptable’: Arab League condemns US move (2:54) “He showed up with large slippers from the prison. He had lost his shoes and spoke about the way he was abused while being transferred to prison,” she said.
“The prosecutors didn’t even say whether the soldiers would be investigated for using excessive force. The whole case so far has been handled with neglect.”
Though unlikely, Bayadsi said the defence team would try to secure al-Junaidi’s release while his case is ongoing.
“It would be easier to speak with him [and] other witnesses, and to gather more evidence,” she said.
‘He was not protesting’
Due to his father’s leg injury and his mother’s terminal illness, al-Junaidi had been the main provider for his family of nine.
His uncle Rashad said that he was simply in the wrong place at the wrong time.
“He left his house to buy some groceries. Unfortunately, as he was looking for the store, he bumped into a military ambush and was confronted with Israeli forces.
“They beat him, blindfolded him, arrested him, and first took him to the detention centre in a nearby settlement. That night, at 2am, he was transferred another detention centre,” he told Al Jazeera.
“The day after, they took him to Ofer prison.” Ofer is in Israel and mostly holds administrative detainees. The prison rarely grants prisoners with visitation rights, and families are often denied permits to cross over to Israel altogether.
“He was not protesting or anything”, Rashad said. “Unfortunately, there has been absolutely no form of communication – we haven’t spoken to him since his arrest.”
Administrative detention is a practice in which Israel imprisons Palestinians without charge or trial, often based on “secret evidence”.
More than 300 children detained in Israeli prisons
Ayed Abu Qtaish, DCIP’s accountability programme director, said about 320 children are currently held in Israeli prisons and detention centres.
“In October 2015, there was a spike in the number of children being interrogated and arrested … A lot of them end up being tried in military courts,” he said.
“These children are usually picked up at protests, arrested for throwing stones, for allegedly possessing a weapon, things like that,” he explained.
Arrests of children usually happen at friction points – either near settlements, bypass roads, or at a construction site neat the separation barrier, he said.
“During these arrests, the children undergo various types of mistreatment, including torture,” he said.
The southern West Bank city of Hebron has become the site of several Israeli settlements in the middle of the local Palestinian population.
According to Israeli rights group B’Tselem, Palestinians in Hebron have been subject to restrictions on movement, the closure of main streets, and the shutting down of a major commercial hub.
B’Tselem has documented Palestinians’ experiences of lengthy, humiliating inspections at 20 permanent checkpoints across Hebron.
The presence of Israeli soldiers has led to a cycle of confrontation, often resulting in nightly military raids and arrests.
‘The infamous breaking the bones policy is back’
Amjad Al-Najjar, spokesperson for the Hebron-based Palestinian Prisoners Club, told Al Jazeera that since the last wave of protests, Israeli forces have used excessive force when beating and arresting Palestinians.
“The infamous breaking the bones policy is back,” he said, referencing policy by Israel’s former Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin.
When he was defence minister during the first Intifada – or mass uprising, Rabin ordered Israeli army commanders to break the bones of Palestinian protesters.
Today, this policy has evolved to specifically target the knees and legs of Palestinian youth to disable them and as a means to prevent them from protesting altogether.
“In the last few days, after the protests over the US embassy move, a lot of the youth who return home after being detained were in miserable shape,” said Al-Najjar.
“They’re often covered in blood and with stitches on their heads as a result of being severely abused and beaten up by Israeli forces,” he added.
“They’re often in so much pain, that they are unable to consume water and food.”

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